Taman Tergantung Babylon
Taman Tergantung Babylon (juga dikenali sebagai Taman Tergantung Semiramis) dan tembok-tembok Babylon (kini Iraq) telah dipertimbangkan untuk menjadi salah satu daripada Tujuh Keajaiban Dunia. Keuda-duanya telah dibina oleh Raja Nebuchadnezzar II sekitar tahun 600 SM . Taman Tergantung ini juga telah dicatatkan dalam sejarah Yunani seperti oleh Strabo dan Diodorus Siculus, tetapi tidak banyak bukti yang menyokong akan kewujudannya. Sesetengah bukti yang dikumpulkan ketika penggalian istana Babylon hanya menunjukkan sesuatu yang umum tetapi tidak menunjukkan lebih dari sekadar hiasan yang menarik. Sesetengah berpendapat yang lokasinya mungkin telah dikelirukan oleh masa yang terlalu lama tambahan pula dengan kewujudan sebuah taman di Nineveh kerana jelas batu-batu bersurat di sana lebih menunjukkan yang taman itu telahpun dijumpai. Tulisan pada batu itu menunjukkan sesuatu alat yang digunakan seakan-akan Skru Archimedes untuk mengangkat air ke tempat tinggi.
Taj Mahal yang terletaknya di tebing Sungai Jumna, berhampiran Agra, India, merupakan makam yang dibina oleh Shah Jahan (1614-1666) sebagai monument peringatan untuk Mumtaz Mahal, isterinya yang kelima. Isterinya telah meninggal ketika melahirkan anak mereka yang ke-14 di medan pertempuran pada tahun 1631 ketika Shah Jahan dalam kempen memperluaskan tanah jajahannya. [Sunting] Pembinaan Shah Jahan memerintahkan Ustad Isa dari Turki untuk mereka bentuk bangunan ini. Ustad mengumpulkan 20,000 orang pekerja yang terdiri daripada tukang batu, tukang emas, dan pengukir yang termasyhur dari seluruh dunia. Dengan bumbung, kubah dan menara yang diperbuat daripada marmar putih, serta seni mozek yang indah, Taj Mahal merupakan salah satu daripada Tujuh Benda Ajaib di dunia. Sebanyak 43 jenis batu permata, termasuknya berlian, jed, kristal, topaz dan nilam telah digunakan. Pembinaan Taj Mahal menelan masa sebanyak 22 tahun. Apabila Taj Mahal siap dibina, Shah Jahan menjatuhi Ustad Isa hukuman pancung. Di samping itu, kesemua tukang yang terlibat dalam pembinaan bangunan itu dipotong tangan mereka supaya mereka tidak dapat membina bangunan yang menandingi Taj Mahal
Tembok Besar China
Tembok Besar China (Cina mudah: 万里长城, Cina tradisional 萬里長城, harafiahnya Bandar 10,000 Li panjang), merupakan kubu China silam yang dibina sekitar 200 SM dan diperkukuh antara akhir abad ke-14 sehingga permulaan abad ke-17, semasa Dinasti Ming, untuk melindungi China daripada serangan puak Mongol dan puak Turkic. Ia didahului oleh beberapa tembok dibina semenjak abad ke-3 SM terhadap perompak puak-puak nomad yang datang dari kawasan yang dikenali hari ini sebagai Mongolia dan Manchuria. Panjang tembok ini ialah 6,352 km, daripada Shanhai Pass sehingga ke Teluk Bohai di sebelah timur yang terletak berhampiran dengan sempadan China dan Manchuria, sehingga Lop Nur di sebelah tenggara wilayah Xinjiang.
Piramid Agung Kufu
Piramid Agung Kufu merupakan satu daripada Tujuh Keajaiban Dunia yang tertua dan yang terakhir masih tinggal. Piramid ini dipercayai dibina sebagai makam untuk Firaun Kufu (nama Greek: Cheops; tempoh pemerintahan: 2606-2583 SM) daripada Wangsa Mesir Keempat. Arkiteknya ialah Hemon, saudara Kufu. Piramid ini siap dibina pada sekitar tahun 2580 SM, setelah menelan masa 20 tahun. Lokasi Piramid Agung Kufu merupakan piramid yang terbesar dan paling terkenal serta tertua antara tiga piramid (Piramid Kufu, Piramid Khafre dan Piramid Menkaure) di Bandar Kematian Giza, Mesir. Kawasan tersebut bersebelahan dengan bandar moden Kaherah, dan menjadi bahagian utama bagi kompleks bangunan-bangunan yang merangkumi laluan pejalan kaki yang istimewa, dua kuil, tiga piramid yang kecil (digelar piramid permaisuri), lubang-lubang untuk mengebumikan bot-bot serta mastaba-mastaba untuk bangsawan. Pada masa itu, juga terdapat sebuah bandar untuk pekerja-pekerja yang mengandungi antaranya perkuburan, kilang-kilang roti, kilang bir serta kompleks peleburan tembaga. Satu dari piramid kecil mengandungi makam ratu Hetepheres (dijumpai pada 1925), yang merupakan adik dan isteri Snefru dan juga ibu kepada Khufu. Banyak lagi kompleks-kompleks bangunan yang masih dalam usaha mencari dan menganalisis untuk Projek Pemetaan Giza. Beberapa ratus meter dari barat daya Piramid ini terletaknya Piramid Khafre, yakni makam waris Khufu yang membina Sfinks Agung. Lagi beberapa ratus meter dari barat daya Piramid Khafre terletaknya Piramid Menkaure yang merupakan makam waris Khafre. Tingginya hanya setengah daripada Piramid Khafre. Walau bagaimanapun daripada gambar foto, ia kelihatan tertinggi di kalangan ketiga-tiga piramid disebabkan ia lebih curam dan dibina di atas tanah yang lebih tinggi.
Menara Miring Pisa (Bahasa Italia: Torre pendente di Pisa atau disingkat Torre di Pisa) adalah sebuah campanile atau menara lonceng katedral di kota Pisa, Italia. Menara Pisa sebenarnya dibuat agar berdiri secara vertikal seperti menara lonceng pada umumnya, namun mulai miring tak lama setelah pembangunannya dimulai pada Agustus 1173. Ia terletak di belakang katedral dan merupakan bangunan ketiga Campo dei Miracoli (lapangan pelangi) kota Pisa. Ketinggian menara ini adalah 55,86 m dari permukaan tanah terendah dan 56,70 m dari permukaan tanah tertinggi. Kelebaran dinding di bawahnya mencapai 4,09 m dan di puncak 2,48 m. Bobotnya diperkirakan mencapai 14.500 ton. Menara Pisa memiliki 294 anak tangga. Sejarah Pembangunan Menara Pisa dilakukan dalam tiga tahap dalam jangka waktu 200 tahun. Pembangunan lantai pertama dari campanile yang berbatu marmer putih dimulai pada 9 Agustus 1173, yang merupakan era kesejahteraan dan kejayaan militer. Lantai pertama ini dikelilingi oleh pilar dengan huruf klasik, yang mengarah miring terhadap lengkungan kerai. Ada kontroversi mengenai identitas dari arsitek Menara Miring Pisa. Selama beberapa tahun lamanya desainer dipredikatkan kepada Guglielmo dan Bonanno Pisano, seorang seniman lokal terkemuka abad ke-12 di Pisa, yang populer oleh cetakan perunggunya, khususnya di dalam Pisa Duomo. Bonanno Pisano meninggalkan Pisa pada 1185 menuju ke Monreale, Sisilia, hanya untuk pulang kampung dan meninggal di kampung halamannya. Sarkofagusnya ditemukan di dasar menara pada tahun 1820. Diperoleh dari
Patung Statue of Liberty
Patung Liberty dan Pulau Liberty Liberty Enlightening the World, lebih dikenal dengan nama Statue of Liberty atau Patung Liberty dalam bahasa Indonesia, adalah suatu patung berukuran raksasa yang terletak di Pulau Liberty, di muara Sungai Hudson di New York Harbor, Amerika Serikat. Patung ini dihadiahkan Perancis untuk Amerika Serikat pada akhir abad ke-19 dan merupakan suatu simbol selamat datang untuk pengunjung, imigran dan orang Amerika yang kembali. Patung perunggu yang diberikan pada tanggal 28 Oktober 1886 ini merupakan hadiah seratus tahun kemerdekaan Amerika Serikat dan merupakan ungkapan persahabatan antara kedua negara. Pemahat patung adalah Frederic Auguste Bartholdi, dan Gustave Eiffel (desainer Menara Eiffel) merancang struktur penyangga dalamnya. Patung Liberty adalah salah satu lambang AS yang paling terkenal di seluruh dunia, dan melambangkan kemerdekaan dan kebebasan dari tekanan.
Dari Wikipedia Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas berbahasa Indonesia. Langsung ke: navigasi, cari Sphinx patung singa berkepala manusia diyakini merupakan kepala Cheops. Memiliki panjang 3 Meter dan tinggi 20 Meter. Melambangkan watak gagah laksana singa dan kepribadian lembut laksana manusia.
Tujuh Keajaiban Dunia Kuno, dengan Pharos Aleksandria, berasal dari zaman Pertengahan. Menurut daftar Antipater tertulis Tembok Babylon dan bukan menara lampu. Dalam urutan sesuai huruf:
- Kolosus di Rodos - patung Helios yang sangat besar, dibuat sekitar tahun 292-280 SM oleh Chures, sekarang Yunani.
- Taman Gantung Babilonia - dibuat oleh Nebukadnezar II, sekitar abad ke-8 SM-abad ke-6 SM, sekarang Irak.
- Mausoleum Mausolus - makam Mausolus, satrap Persia, Caria, dibuat pada tahun 353-351 SM, di kota Halicarnassus, sekarang Bodrum, Turki.
- Mercusuar Iskandariyah - mercusuar dibangun sekitar tahun 270 SM di pulau Pharos dekat Alexandria pada masa pemerintahan Ptolemeus II oleh arsitek Yunani Sostratus, sekarang Mesir.
- Piramida Giza - dipakai sebagai makam untuk firaun Mesir Khufu, Khafre, dan Menkaure, sekarang Mesir. Dibangun pada dinasti ke-4 Mesir (sekitar 2575- sekitar 2465 SM)
- Patung Zeus - berada di Olympia, dipahat oleh pemahat Yunani Fidias, kira-kira 457 SM sekarang Yunani.
Setelah keruntuhan peradaban kuno, ingatan akan keajaiban dunia kuno yang hancur perlahan menghilang. Kaum cerdik-pandai dan filsuf meninjau ulang dan menulis kembali daftar keajaiban, menghilangkan yang lama dan menggantikannya dengan "yang baru dibuat" sementara kisah mereka menyebar. Setelah beberapa abad sebuah konsensus muncul dalam bentuk daftar Tujuh Keajaiban Pikiran Pertengahan:
- Katakombe Kom el Shoqafa
- Tembok Besar China
- Hagia Sophia
- Menara miring Pisa
- Menara porselen Nanjing (Nanjing, Cina)
- Stonehenge (Skotlandia, Britania Raya)
Sama dengan daftar keajaiban dunia lainnya, tidak ada kesepakatan akan daftar tentang keajaiban alam dunia. Salah satu dari daftar keajaiban dunia alami disusun oleh CNN:
- Grand Canyon
- Great Barrier Reef
- Pelabuhan Rio de Janeiro
- Mount Everest
- Northern Lights
- Volkano Paricutín
- Air terjun Victoria
Meskipun keajaiban dunia bawah laut adalah keajaiban dunia alami dan tidak dibuat oleh manusia; keajaiban di bawah ini bisa berada di dalam laut, di bawah permukaan laut, atau dikelilingi oleh perairan.
- Karang Penghalang Belize
- Deep-Sea Vents
- Kepulauan Galapagos
- Karang Penghalang Besar
- Danau Baikal
- Laut Merah Utara
Banyak orang sudah menyusun daftar Keajaiban dunia modern (Sekarang). Daftar yang paling umum adalah:
- Terowongan Channel (Britania Raya dan Perancis)
- Menara CN (Toronto, Kanada)
- Empire State Building (New York, Amerika Serikat)
- Jembatan Golden Gate (San Francisco, AS)
- Dam Itaipu (Brazil dan Paraguay)
- Proyek Delta/Proyek Zuiderzee (Belanda)
- Terusan Panama (Panama)
Sebuah projek tentang 7 keajaiban dunia secara luas. Pada tanggal 7 Juli 2007 terpilih 7 Keajaiban dunia baru dengan suara terbanyak yaitu:
Roma , italy
Harga Diri, Dialog
Pemujaan, Ilmu Pengetahuan
Perlindungan, Terus Menerus
Kemurahan hati, Harapan
1. Easter Island (Chile)
Easter Island is a Polynesian island in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, at the southeastern most point of the Polynesian triangle. A special territory of Chile annexed in 1888, Easter Island is widely famous for its 887 extant monumental statues, called moai, created by the early Rapanui people. It is a World Heritage Site with much of the island protected within the Rapa Nui National Park. The history of Easter Island is rich and controversial. Its inhabitants have endured famines, epidemics, civil war, slave raids and colonialism, and near deforestation; their population has declined precipitously more than once. They have left a cultural legacy that has brought them fame disproportionate to their population.
2. Machu Picchu (Peru)
Central America & Caribbean
Machu Picchu is a pre-Columbian Inca site located 2,430 metres (8,000 ft) above sea level. It is situated on a mountain ridge above the vicalamba Valley in Peru, which is 80 kilometres (50 mi) northwest of Cuzco and through which the Urubamba River flows. Most archaeologists believe that Machu Picchu was built as an estate for the Inca emperor Pachacuti (1438–1472). Often referred to as “The Lost City of the Incas”, it is perhaps the most familiar icon of the Inca World.
3. Teotihuacan (Mexico)
Teotihuacan is an enormous archaeological site in the Basin of Mexico, containing some of the largest pyramidal structures built in the pre-Columbian Americas. Apart from the pyramidal structures, Teotihuacan is also known for its large residential complexes, the Avenue of the Dead, and numerous colorful, well-preserved murals. At its zenith in the first half of the 1st millennium CE, Teotihuacan was the largest city in the pre-Columbian Americas. At this time it may have had more than 200,000 inhabitants, placing it among the largest cities of the world in this period. The civilization and cultural complex associated with the site is also referred to as Teotihuacan or Teotihuacano.
5. Palenque (Mexico)
Palenque was a Maya city state in southern Mexico that flourished in the seventh century CE. After its decline it was absorbed into the jungle, but has been excavated and restored and is now a famous archaeological site attracting thousands of visitors. It is located near the Usumacinta River in the Mexican state of Chiapas, located about 130 km south of Ciudad del Carmen (see map) about 150 meters above sea-level.
6. Château de Chambord (France)
The royal Château de Chambord at Chambord, Loir-et-Cher, France is one of the most recognizable châteaux in the world because of its very distinct French Renaissance architecture that blends traditional French medieval forms with classical Italian structures. The building, which was never completed, was constructed by King François I in part to be near to his mistress the Comtesse de Thoury, Claude Rohan, wife of Julien de Clermont, a member of a very important family of France, whose domaine, the château de Muides, was adjacent. Her arms figure in the carved decor of the chateau. Chambord is the largest castle in the Loire Valley, but was built to serve only as a hunting lodge for François I, who maintained his royal residences at Château de Blois and at Château d’Amboise. The original design of the Château de Chambord is attributed, though with several doubts, to Domenico da Cortona, whose wooden model for the design survived long enough to be drawn by André Félibien in the seventeenth century.
7. Chartres Cathedral (France)
The Cathedral of Our Lady of Chartres, a Latin Rite Catholic cathedral located in Chartres, about 80 kilometres (50 mi) southwest of Paris, is considered one of the finest examples in all France of the Gothic style of architecture. The current cathedral is one of at least four that have occupied the site. From a distance it seems to hover in mid-air above waving fields of wheat, and it is only when the visitor draws closer that the city comes into view, clustering around the hill on which the cathedral stands. Its two contrasting spires — one, a 105 metre (349 ft) plain pyramid dating from the 1140s, and the other a 113 metre (377 ft) tall early 16th century Flamboyant spire on top of an older tower — soar upwards over the pale green roof, while all around the outside are complex flying buttresses.
8. Pont du Gard (France)
The Pont du Gard is an aqueduct in the South of France constructed by the Roman Empire, and located in Vers-Pont-du-Gard near Remoulins, in the Gard département. It has long been thought that the Pont du Gard was built by Augustus’ son-in-law and aide, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, around the year 19 BC. Newer excavations, however, suggest the construction may have taken place in the middle of the first century A.D; consequently, opinion is now somewhat divided on the matter.
9. Acropolis of Athens (Greece)
The Acropolis of Athens is the best known acropolis in the world. Although there are many other acropoleis in Greece, the significance of the Acropolis of Athens is such that it is commonly known as The Acropolis without qualification. The Acropolis was formally proclaimed as the pre-eminent monument on the European Cultural Heritage list of monuments on 26 March 2007. The Acropolis is a flat-topped rock that rises 150 m (490 ft) above sea level in the city of Athens, with a surface area of about 3 hectares. It was also known as Cecropia, after the legendary serpent-man, Cecrops, the first Athenian king. The entrance to the Acropolis was a monumental gateway called the Propylaea. To the south of the entrance is the tiny Temple of Athena Nike. A bronze statue of Athena, sculpted by Phidias, originally stood at its centre. At the centre of the Acropolis is the Parthenon or Temple of Athena Parthenos (Athena the Virgin). East of the entrance and north of the Parthenon is the temple known as the Erechtheum.
10. Archaeological Site of Delphi (Greece)
Delphi is both an archaeological site and a modern town in Greece on the south-western spur of Mount Parnassus in the valley of Phocis. Delphi was the site of the Delphic oracle, the most important oracle in the classical Greek world, and a major site for the worship of the god Apollo after he slew the Python, a deity who lived there and protected the navel of the Earth. Python (derived from the verb pythein, “to rot”) is claimed by some to be the original name of the site in recognition of the Python that Apollo defeated (Miller, 95). The Homeric Hymn to Delphic Apollo recalled that the ancient name of this site had been Krisa. His sacred precinct in Delphi was a panhellenic sanctuary, where every four years, starting in 586 B.C. (Miller, 96) athletes from all over the Greek world competed in the Pythian Games, one of the four panhellenic (or stephanitic) games, precursors of the Modern Olympics.
11. Epidaurus Theater (Greece)
The prosperity brought by the Asklepieion enabled Epidauros to construct civic monuments too: the huge theater that delighted Pausanias for its symmetry and beauty, which is used once again for dramatic performances, the ceremonial Hestiatoreion (banqueting hall), baths and a palaestra. The theater was designed by Polykleitos the Younger in the 4th century BC. The original 34 rows were extended in Roman times by another 21 rows. As is usual for Greek theaters (and as opposed to Roman ones), the view on a lush landscape behind the skene is an integral part of the theater itself and is not to be obscured. It seats up to 15,000 people.
12. Colosseum (Italy)
The Colosseum or Roman Coliseum, originally the Flavian Amphitheatre, is an elliptical amphitheatre in the center of the city of Rome, Italy, the largest ever built in the Roman Empire. It is considered one of the greatest works of Roman architecture and Roman engineering. Occupying a site just east of the Roman Forum, its construction started between 70 and 72 AD under the emperor Vespasian and was completed in 80 AD under Titus, with further modifications being made during Domitian’s reign (81–96). The name “Amphitheatrum Flavium” derives from both Vespasian’s and Titus’s family name (Flavius, from the gens Flavia). Capable of seating 50,000 spectators, the Colosseum was used for gladiatorial contests and public spectacles. As well as the gladiatorial games, other public spectacles were held there, such as mock sea battles, animal hunts, executions, re-enactments of famous battles, and dramas based on Classical mythology.
13. Grand Canal Of Venice (Italy)
The Grand Canal is a canal in Venice, Italy. It forms one of the major water-traffic corridors in the city. Public transport is provided by water buses and private water taxis, but many tourists visit it by gondola. At one end the canal leads into the lagoon near Santa Lucia railway station and the other end leads into Saint Mark Basin: in between it makes a large S-shape through the central districts (”sestieri”) of Venice. It is 3,800 m long, 30-90 m wide, with an average depth of five meters. The Grand Canal banks are lined with more than 170 buildings, most of which date to 13th/18th century and demonstrate the welfare and art created by the Republic of Venice. The noble venetian families faced huge expenses to show off their richness in suitable palazzos: this contest reveals the citizens’ pride and the deep bond with the lagoon.
14. Pompeii (Italy)
Pompeii is a ruined and partially buried Roman town-city near modern Naples in the Italian region of Campania, in the territory of the comune of Pompeii. Along with Herculaneum, its sister city, Pompeii was destroyed and completely buried during a long catastrophic eruption of the volcano Mount Vesuvius spanning two days in 79 AD. The volcano collapsed higher roof-lines and buried Pompeii under 20 meters of ash and pumice, and it was lost for nearly 1,700 years before its accidental rediscovery in 1748. Since then, its excavation has provided an extraordinarily detailed insight into the life of a city at the height of the Roman Empire. Today, this UNESCO World Heritage Site is one of the most popular tourist attractions of Italy, with 2,571,725 visitors in 2007.
15. Piazza del Campo (Italy)
Piazza del Campo is the principal public space of the historic center of Siena, Tuscany, Italy and is one of Europe’s greatest medieval squares. It is renowned worldwide for its beauty and architectural integrity. The Palazzo Pubblico and its Torre del Mangia, as well as various palazzi signorili surround the shell-shaped piazza. At the northwest edge is the Fonte Gaia. The twice-per-year horse-race, Palio di Siena, is held around the edges of the piazza.
16. Hieronymites Monastery (Portugal)
The Hieronymites Monastery is located in the Belém district of Lisbon, Portugal. This magnificent monastery can be considered one of the most prominent monuments in Lisbon and is certainly one of the most successful achievements of the Manueline style (Portuguese late-Gothic). In 1983, it was classified by the UNESCO, with nearby Belém Tower, as a World Heritage Site. The house for the Hieronymite monks was built on the same site of the Ermida do Restelo, a hermitage that was founded by Henry the Navigator at about 1450. It was at this hermitage, that was already in disrepair, that Vasco da Gama and his men spent the night in prayer before departing for India in 1497.
17. Alhambra (Spain)
The Alhambra, the complete form of which was Calat Alhambra, is a palace and fortress complex constructed during the mid 14th century by the Moorish rulers of the Emirate of Granada in Al-Andalus, occupying a hilly terrace on the southeastern border of the city of Granada, now in the autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain. Once the residence of the Muslim rulers of Granada and their court, the site became a Christian palace. Within the Alhambra, the Palace of Charles V was erected by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, in 1527. After being allowed to fall into disrepair, the Alhambra was “rediscovered” in the 19th century. It is now one of Spain’s major tourist attractions and exhibits the country’s most famous Islamic architecture, together with Christian 16th-century and later interventions in buildings and gardens.
18. Chillon Castle (Switzerland)
The Chillon Castle (Château de Chillon) is located on the shore of Lake Geneva in the municipality of Veytaux, at the eastern end of the lake, 3 km from Montreux, Switzerland. The castle consists of 100 independent buildings that were gradually connected to become the building as it stands now. The oldest parts of the castle have not been definitively dated, but the first written record of the castle is in 1160 or 1005. From the mid 12th century, the castle was home to the Counts of Savoy, and it was greatly expanded in the 13th century by Pietro II. The Castle was never taken in a siege, but did change hands through treaties.
19. Stonehenge (United Kingdom)
Stonehenge is a prehistoric monument located in the English county of Wiltshire, about 3.2 kilometres (2.0 mi) west of Amesbury and 13 kilometres (8.1 mi) north of Salisbury. One of the most famous sites in the world, Stonehenge is composed of earthworks surrounding a circular setting of large standing stones. It is at the centre of the most dense complex of Neolithic and Bronze Age monuments in England, including several hundred burial mounds. Archaeologists had believed that the iconic stone monument was erected around 2500 BC, as described in the chronology below. One recent theory, however, has suggested that the first stones were not erected until 2400-2200 BC, whilst another suggests that bluestones may have been erected at the site as early as 3000 BC (see phase 1 below).
20. Great Pyramid of Giza (Egypt)
The Great Pyramid of Giza (also called the Pyramid of Khufu and the Pyramid of Cheops) is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza Necropolis bordering what is now El Giza, Egypt, and in a historical irony is the oldest of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World and the only one that survives substantially intact. It is believed the pyramid was built as a tomb for fourth dynasty Egyptian Pharaoh Khufu (Cheops in Greek) and constructed over a 20 year period concluding around 2551 BC. The Great Pyramid consists of more than 2.3 million limestone blocks (unless it was built on a substantial core of natural rock, which is possible). The Egyptians obtained the majority of the limestone blocks from a nearby quarry. The Tura limestone used for the casing was quarried across the river. The largest granite stones in the pyramid, found in the “King’s” chamber, weigh 25 to 80 tonnes and were transported more than 500 miles away from Aswan.
21. Abu Simbel (Egypt)
Abu Simbel temples are two massive rock temples in Nubia, southern Egypt on the western bank of Lake Nasser about 290 km southwest of Aswan. It is part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site known as the “Nubian Monuments”, which run from Abu Simbel downriver to Philae (near Aswan). The twin temples were originally carved out of the mountainside during the reign of Pharaoh Ramesses II in the 13th century BC, as a lasting monument to himself and his queen Nefertari, to commemorate his alleged victory at the Battle of Kadesh, and to intimidate his Nubian neighbors. However, the complex was relocated in its entirety in the 1960s, on an artificial hill made from a domed structure, high above the Aswan High Dam reservoir. The relocation of the temples was necessary to avoid their being submerged during the creation of Lake Nasser, the massive artificial water reservoir formed after the building of the Aswan High Dam on the Nile River. Abu Simbel remains one of Egypt’s top tourist attractions.
22. Karnak (Egypt)
The Karnak Temple Complex — usually called simply Karnak — comprises a vast conglomeration of ruined temples, chapels, pylons and other buildings, notably the Great Temple of Amen and a massive structure begun by Pharaoh Amenhotep III (ca. 1391-1351 BC). It is located near Luxor, some 500 km south of Cairo, in Egypt. The area around Karnak was the ancient Egyptian Ipet-isut (”The Most Selected of Places”) and the main place of worship of the Theban Triad with the god Amun as its head. It is part of the monumental city of Thebes. The Karnak complex takes its name from the nearby (and partly surrounded) modern village of el-Karnak, some 2.5 km north of Luxor.
23. Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut (Egypt)
The Mortuary Temple of Queen Hatshepsut is situated beneath the cliffs at Deir el Bahari on the west bank of the Nile near the Valley of the Kings in Egypt. Designed by the architect Senemut, the mortuary temple is dedicated to the sun god Amon-Ra and is located next to the mortuary temple of Mentuhotep II, which served both as an inspiration, and later, a quarry. It is considered one of the “incomparable monuments of ancient Egypt.”. Hatshepsut’s temple is considered the closest Egypt came to the Classical Architecture. It marks a turning point in the architecture of Ancient Egypt, which forsook the megalithic geometry of the Old Kingdom for a temple which allowed for active worship, requiring the presence of participants to create the majesty.
24. Leptis Magna (Libya)
Leptis Magna, also known as Lectis Magna (or Lepcis Magna as it is sometimes spelled), also called Lpqy or Neapolis, was a prominent city of the Roman Empire. Its ruins are located in Al Khums, Libya, 130 km east of Tripoli, on the coast where the Wadi Lebda meets the sea. The site is one of the most spectacular and unspoiled Roman ruins in the Mediterranean. The city appears to have been founded by Phoenician colonists sometime around 1100 BC, although it did not achieve prominence until Carthage became a major power in the Mediterranean Sea in the 4th century BC. It nominally remained part of Carthage’s dominions until the end of the Third Punic War in 146 BC and then became part of the Roman Republic, although from about 200 BC onward, it was for all intents and purposes an independent city.
25. Timbuktu (Mali)
Timbuktu (Timbuctoo) is a city in Tombouctou Region, in the West African nation of Mali. It was made prosperous by the tenth mansa of the Mali Empire, Mansa Musa. It is home to Sankore University and other madrasas, and was an intellectual and spiritual capital and centre for the propagation of Islam throughout Africa in the 15th and 16th centuries. Its three great mosques, Djingareyber, Sankore and Sidi Yahya, recall Timbuktu’s golden age. Although continuously restored, these monuments are today under threat from desertification.
26. Angkor Wat (Cambodia)
26. Angkor Wat (Cambodia)
Angkor Wat (or Angkor Vat) is a temple complex at Angkor, Cambodia, built for the king Suryavarman II in the early 12th century as his state temple and capital city. As the best-preserved temple at the site, it is the only one to have remained a significant religious centre since its foundation—first Hindu, dedicated to the god Vishnu, then Buddhist. The temple is the epitome of the high classical style of Khmer architecture. It has become a symbol of Cambodia, appearing on its national flag, and it is the country’s prime attraction for visitors. Angkor Wat, is a unique combination of the temple mountain, the standard design for the empire’s state temples, the later plan of concentric galleries, and influences from Orissa and the Chola of Tamil Nadu, India. The temple is a representation of Mount Meru, the home of the gods: the central quincunx of towers symbolises the five peaks of the mountain, and the walls and moat the surrounding mountain ranges and ocean. Access to the upper areas of the temple was progressively more exclusive, with the laity being admitted only to the lowest level.
27. Great Wall of China (China)
The Great Wall of China or is a series of stone and earthen fortifications in northern China, built, rebuilt, and maintained between the 5th century BC and the 16th century to protect the northern borders of the Chinese Empire. Since the 5th century BC, several walls have been built that were referred to as the Great Wall. One of the most famous is the wall built between 220–206 BC by the first Emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang. Little of that wall remains; the majority of the existing wall were built during the Ming Dynasty.
28. Forbidden City (China)
The Forbidden City was the Chinese imperial palace from the Ming Dynasty to the end of the Qing Dynasty. It is located in the middle of Beijing, China, and now houses the Palace Museum. For almost five centuries, it served as the home of the Emperor and his household, as well as the ceremonial and political centre of Chinese government. Since 1925, the Forbidden City has been under the charge of the Palace Museum, whose extensive collection of artwork and artifacts were built upon the imperial collections of the Ming and Qing dynasties. Part of the museum’s former collection is now located in the National Palace Museum in Taipei. Both museums descend from the same institution, but were split after the Chinese Civil War. (based on a
29. Terracotta Army (China)
The Terracotta Army is the Terra Cotta Warriors and Horses of Qin Shi Huang the First Emperor of China. The terracotta figures, dating from 210 BC, were discovered in 1974 by some local farmers near Xi’an, Shaanxi province, China near the Mausouleum of the First Qin Emperor. The figures vary in height (183–195 cm - 6 ft–6 ft 5in), according to their role, the tallest being the generals. The figures include warriors, chariots, horses, officials, acrobats, strongmen, and musicians. Current estimates are that in the three pits containing the Terracotta Army there were over 8,000 soldiers, 130 chariots with 520 horses and 150 cavalry horses, the majority of which are still buried in the pits. Many archeologists believe that there are many pits still waiting to be discovered.
30. Hanging Temple of Hengshan (China)
The Hanging Temple is a temple built into a cliff ( 75m Above the ground ) near Mount Heng in the province of Shanxi. The closest city is Datong, 65 kilometers to the northwest. Along with the Yungang Grottoes, the Hanging Temple is one of the main tourist attractions and historical sites in the Datong area. Built more than 1,500 years ago, this temple is notable not only for its location on a sheer precipice but also because it includes Buddhist, Taoist, and Confucian elements.
31. Leshan Giant Buddha (China)
The Leshan Giant Buddha was built during the Tang Dynasty (618–907). It is carved out of a cliff face that lies at the confluence of the Minjiang, Dadu and Qingyi rivers in the southern part of Sichuan province in China, near the city of Leshan. The stone sculpture faces Mount Emei, with the rivers flowing below his feet. It is the largest carved stone Buddha in the world and at the time of its construction was the tallest statue in the world. At 71 metres (233 feet) tall, the statue depicts a seated Maitreya Buddha with his hands resting on his knees. His shoulders are 28 metres wide and his smallest toenail is large enough to easily accommodate a seated person.
\32. Taj Mahal (India)
The Taj Mahal is a mausoleum located in Agra, India, built by Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his favorite wife, Mumtaz Mahal. The Taj Mahal is considered the finest example of Mughal architecture, a style that combines elements from Persian, Indian, and Islamic architectural styles. In 1983, the Taj Mahal became a UNESCO World Heritage Site and was cited as “the jewel of Muslim art in India and one of the universally admired masterpieces of the world’s heritage.”
33. Harmandir Sahib (India)
Golden Temple or Harmandir Sahib, informally referred to as The Golden Temple or Temple of God, is culturally the most significant place of worship of the Sikhs and one of the oldest Sikh gurdwaras. It is located in the city of Amritsar, which was established by Guru Ram Das Ji, the fourth guru of the Sikhs, and is, also due to the shrine, known as Guru Di Nagri meaning city of the Guru. Originally built during AD 1574, the site of the temple was surrounded by a small lake in a thin forest. The third of the six grand Mughals, emperor Akbar, who visited the third Sikh Guru, Guru Amar Das.
34. Meenakshi Sundareswarar Temple (India)
Meenakshi Sundareswarar Temple or Meenakshi Amman Temple is a historic Hindu temple located in the holy city of Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India. It is dedicated to Lord Shiva (in the form of Sundareswarar or Beautiful Lord) and his consort, Goddess Parvati (in the form of Meenakshi). The temple forms the heart and lifeline of the 2500 year old city of Madurai. The complex houses 14 magnificent Gopurams or towers including two golden Gopurams for the main deities, that are elaborately sculptured and painted. The temple is a significant symbol for the Tamil people, and has been mentioned since antiquity in Tamil literature, though the present structure is believed to have been built in 1600. The tallest temple tower is 51.9 metres (170 ft) high.
35. Borobudur (Indonesia)
Borobudur is a ninth-century Mahayana Buddhist monument in Magelang, Central Java, Indonesia. The monument comprises six square platforms topped by three circular platforms, and is decorated with 2,672 relief panels and 504 Buddha statues. A main dome, located at the center of the top platform, is surrounded by 72 Buddha statues seated inside perforated stupa. The monument is both a shrine to the Lord Buddha and a place for Buddhist pilgrimage. The journey for pilgrims begins at the base of the monument and follows a path circumambulating the monument while ascending to the top through the three levels of Buddhist cosmology, namely Kāmadhātu (the world of desire), Rupadhatu (the world of forms) and Arupadhatu (the world of formlessness). During the journey the monument guides the pilgrims through a system of stairways and corridors with 1,460 narrative relief panels on the wall and the balustrades.
36. Kinkaku-ji (Japan)
Kinkaku-ji or formally Rokuon-ji is a Zen Buddhist temple in Kyoto, Japan. It is one of the construction that represents the Kitayama Culture of Muromachi period. The original Kinkaku-ji was built in 1397 to serve as a retirement villa for Shogun Ashikaga Yoshimitsu, as part of his estate then known as Kitayama. It was his son, shogun Ashikaga Yoshimochi, who converted the building into a Zen temple of the Rinzai school.
37. Bagan (Myanmar)
Bagan, formerly Pagan, is an ancient city in the Mandalay Division of Burma (Myanmar). Formally titled Arimaddanapura or Arimaddana (the City of the Enemy Crusher) and also known as Tambadipa (the Land of Copper) or Tassadessa (the Parched Land), it was the ancient capital of several ancient kingdoms in Burma. It is located in the dry central plains of the country, on the eastern bank of the Ayeyarwady River, 90 miles (145 km) southwest of Mandalay. Bagan was submitted to become a UNESCO heritage site but many speculate of politics as partly the reason for the exclusion. UNESCO does not designate Bagan as a World Heritage Site. The main reason given is that the military junta (SPDC) has haphazardly restored ancient stupas, temples and buildings, ignoring original architectural styles and using modern materials which bear little or no resemblance to the original designs. The junta has also established a golf course, a paved highway, and built a 200-foot (61-m) watchtower in the southeastern suburb of Minnanthu.
38. Banaue Rice Terraces (Philippines)
The Banaue Rice Terraces are 2000-year old terraces that were carved into the mountains of Ifugao in the Philippines by ancestors of the indigenous people. The Rice Terraces are commonly referred to by Filipinos as the “Eighth Wonder of the World”. It is commonly thought that the terraces were built with minimal equipment, largely by hand. The terraces are located approximately 1500 meters (5000 ft) above sea level and cover 10,360 square kilometers (about 4000 square miles) of mountainside. They are fed by an ancient irrigation system from the rainforests above the terraces. It is said that if the steps are put end to end it would encircle half the globe. The Banaue terraces are part of the Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras, ancient sprawling man-made structures from 2,000 to 6,000 years old. They are found in the provinces of Kalinga, Apayao, Benguet, Mountain Province and Ifugao, and are a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
39. Kremlin (Russia)
Kremlin is the Russian word for “fortress”, “citadel” or “castle” and refers to any major fortified central complex found in historic Russian cities. This word is often used to refer to the best-known one, the Moscow Kremlin, or metonymically to the government that is based there. Outside Russia, the name “Kremlin” is sometimes mistakenly thought of as being Saint Basil’s Cathedral because of its distinctive environment, although this is not a part of the Moscow Kremlin. The name Kremlin (or Kreml) has been allocated to various Soviet Navy vessels during construction. In each case, the name was changed prior to commissioning. Vessels which have briefly carried this name included Admiral Kuznetsov and Ulyanovsk.
40. Wat Phra Kaew (Thailand)
The Wat Phra Kaew (English Temple of the Emerald Buddha) full official name Wat Phra Sri Rattana Satsadaram, is regarded as the most sacred Buddhist temple (wat) in Thailand. It is located in the historic center of Bangkok (district Phra Nakhon), within the grounds of the Grand Palace. The construction of the temple started when King Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke (Rama I) moved the capital from Thonburi to Bangkok in 1785. Unlike other temples it does not contain living quarters for monks; rather, it has only the highly decorated holy buildings, statues, and pagodas.
41. Wat Arun (Thailand)
Wat Arun is a Buddhist temple (wat) in the Bangkok Yai district of Bangkok, Thailand, on the west bank of the Chao Phraya River. The full name of the temple is Wat Arunratchawararam Ratchaworamahawihan. The outstanding feature of Wat Arun is its central prang (Khmer-style tower). Begun in 1809, it may have been named “Temple of the Dawn” because the first light of morning reflects off the surface of the temple with a pearly iridescence. Steep steps lead up to two terraces. The height is reported by different sources as between 66.8 m and 86 m. The corners are surrounded by 4 smaller satellite prangs. The prangs are decorated by seashells and bits of porcelain which had previously been used as ballast by boats coming to Bangkok from China.
42. Dome of the Rock (Israel)
42. Dome of the Rock (Israel)
The Dome of the Rock is an Islamic shrine and major landmark located on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem. It was completed in 691, making it the oldest existing Islamic building in the world. The site’s significance stems from the religious beliefs regarding the rock, known as the Foundation Stone in Judaism, at its heart. The Dome of the Rock is located at the visual center of a platform known as the Temple Mount, which Muslims refer to as the “Noble Sanctuary”. It was constructed over the site of the Second Jewish Temple which was destroyed during the Roman Siege of Jerusalem in 70 CE. In 637 CE, Jerusalem was conquered by the Rashidun Caliphate army during the Islamic invasion of the Byzantine Empire.
43. Masada (Israel)
Masada is the name for a site of ancient palaces and fortifications in the South District of Israel on top of an isolated rock plateau, or horst, on the eastern edge of the Judean Desert overlooking the Dead Sea. After the First Jewish-Roman War a siege of the fortress by troops of the Roman Empire led to the mass suicide of the Sicarii rebels, who preferred death to surrender. According to Josephus, a first-century Jewish Roman historian, Herod the Great fortified Masada between 37 and 31 BCE as a refuge for himself in the event of a revolt. In 66 CE, at the beginning of the First Jewish-Roman War against the Roman Empire, a group of Jewish extremists called the Sicarii overcame the Roman garrison of Masada.
44. Petra (Jordan)
Petra, is a historic and archaeological city in the Jordanian governorate of Ma’an that has rock cut architecture and water conduits system. Established sometime around the 6th century BC as the capital city of the Nabataeans, it is a symbol of Jordan as well as its most visited tourism attraction. It lies on the slope of Mount Hor in a basin among the mountains which form the eastern flank of Arabah (Wadi Araba), the large valley running from the Dead Sea to the Gulf of Aqaba. Petra was chosen as one of the New Seven Wonders of the World in 2007 and a World Heritage Site since 1985. Petra was chosen by the BBC as one of “the 40 places you have to see before you die”.
45. Baalbek (Lebanon)
Baalbek is a town in the Bekaa Valley of Lebanon, altitude 1,170 metres (3,800 ft), situated east of the Litani River. It is famous for its exquisitely detailed yet monumentally scaled temple ruins of the Roman period, when Baalbek, known as Heliopolis was one of the largest sanctuaries in the Empire. It is Lebanon’s greatest Roman treasure, and it can be counted among the wonders of the ancient world. The largest and most noble Roman temples ever built, they are also among the best preserved. Towering high above the Beqaa plain, their monumental proportions proclaimed the power and wealth of Imperial Rome. The gods worshipped here, the Triad of Jupiter, Venus and Bacchus, were grafted onto the indigenous deities of Hadad, Atargatis and a young male god of fertility. Local influences are also seen in the planning and layout of the temples, which vary from the classic Roman design.
46. Damascus (Syria)
Damascus (commonly known as ash-Shām also known as the “City of Jasmin”) is the capital and largest city of Syria as well as one of the country’s 14 governorates. The Damascus Governorate is ruled by a governor appointed by the Minister of Interior. In addition to being widely known as the oldest continuously inhabited city in the world, Damascus is a major cultural and religious center of the Levant. Damascus has a wealth of historical sites dating back to many different periods of the city’s history. Since the city has been built up with every passing occupation, it has become almost impossible to excavate all the ruins of Damascus that lie up to 8 feet (2.4 m) below the modern level. The Citadel of Damascus is located in the northwest corner of the Old City.
47. Palmyra (Syria)
Palmyra was in ancient times an important city of central Syria, located in an oasis 215 km northeast of Damascus and 180 km southwest of the Euphrates at Deir ez-Zor. It has long been a vital caravan city for travellers crossing the Syrian desert and was known as the Bride of the Desert. The earliest documented reference to the city by its Semitic name Tadmor, Tadmur or Tudmur (which means “the town that repels” in Amorite and “the indomitable town” in Aramaic.) is recorded in Babylonian tablets found in Mari. Though the ancient site fell into disuse after the 16th century, it is still known as Tadmor in Arabic, and there is a newer town next to the ruins of the same name. The Palmyrenes constructed a series of large-scale monuments containing funerary art such as limestone slabs with human busts representing the deceased.
48. Hagia Sophia (Turkey)
Hagia Sophia is a former Orthodox patriarchal basilica, later a mosque, now a museum in Istanbul, Turkey. Famous in particular for its massive dome, it is considered the epitome of Byzantine architecture and to have “changed the history of architecture.” It was the largest cathedral in the world for nearly a thousand years, until the completion of the Seville Cathedral in 1520. The current building was originally constructed as a church between 532 and 537 A.D. on the orders of the Byzantine Emperor Justinian, and was in fact the third Church of the Holy Wisdom to occupy the site.
49. Sultan Ahmed Mosque (Turkey)
The Sultan Ahmed Mosque (Turkish: Sultanahmet Camii) is a historical mosque in Istanbul, the largest city in Turkey and the capital of the Ottoman Empire (from 1453 to 1923). The mosque is popularly known as the Blue Mosque for the blue tiles adorning the walls of its interior. It was built between 1609 and 1616, during the rule of Ahmed I. Like many other mosques, it also comprises a tomb of the founder, a madrasah and a hospice. While still used as a mosque, the Sultan Ahmed Mosque has also become a popular tourist attraction of Istanbul.
50. Library of Celsus (Turkey)
The library of Celsus, in Ephesus, Asia Minor (Anatolia, now Turkey), was built in honor of Tiberius Julius Celsus Polemaeanus (completed in 135 AD) by Celsus’ son, Gaius Julius Aquila (consul, 110 AD). Celsus had been consul in 92 AD, governor of Asia in 115 AD, and a wealthy and popular local citizen. The library was built to store 12,000 scrolls and to serve as a monumental tomb for Celsus. It was unusual to be buried within a library or even within city limits, so this was a special honor for Celsus. The building is important as one of few remaining examples of an ancient Roman-influenced library. It also shows that public libraries were built not only in Rome itself but throughout the Roman Empire.
Setiap tahunnya dunia pasti mempunyai keajaiban – keajaiban dunia yang maha dahsyat dan berikut ini adalah 7 dari keajaiban dunia terbaru tahun 2010 versi CNN :
1. Grand Canyon
Grand Canyon adalah sebuah jurang tebing-terjal, diukir oleh Sungai Colorado, di utara Arizona. Jurang ini merupakan satu dari Tujuh Keajaiban Dunia dan sebagian besar berada di Taman Nasional Grand Canyon; salah satu taman nasional pertama di Amerika Serikat. Presiden Theodore Roosevelt merupakan salah satu pendukung utama wilayah Grand Canyon, mengunjunginya dalam beberapa kesempatan untuk berburu singa gunung dan menikmati pemandangan alam yang luar biasa.
Jurang ini, diciptakan oleh Sungai Colorado memotong sebuah selat selama jutaan tahun, panjangnya kira-kira 446 km, dengan lebar mulai dari 6 sampai 29 km dan dengan kedalaman lebih dari 1.600 m. Hampir dari 2000 juta tahun sejarah Bumi telah terpotong oleh Sungai Colorado dan anak sungainya lapis demi lapis sedimen ketika Dataran Tinggi Colorado mulai terangkat.
Grand Canyon pertama kali dilihat oleh orang Eropa pada 1540, GarcÃa LÃ³pez de CÃ¡rdenas dari Spanyol. Ekspedisi saintifik pertama ke canyon ini dipimpin oleh Mayor AS John Wesley Powell pada akhir 1870-an. Powell menunjuk ke batuan sedimen yang terbuka di jurang sebagai “daun dalam buku cerita agung”. Namun, jauh sebelum masa itu, wilayah ini telah ditinggali oleh Penduduk Asli Amerika yang membangun tempat tinggal di tembok jurang ini
2. Great Barrier Reef/Karang Penghalang Besar
Great Barrier Reef adalah kumpulan terumbu karang terbesar dunia yang terdiri dari kurang lebih 3.000 karang dan 900 pulau, yang membentang sepanjang 2.600 km. Karang ini berlokasi di Laut Koral, lepas pantai Queensland di timur laut Australia. Sebagian besar wilayah karang ini termasuk bagian yang dilindungi oleh Taman Laut Karang Penghalang Besar (Great Barrier Reef Marine Park).
Karang Penghalang Besar (KPB) dapat dilihat dari luar angkasa dan kadang disebut sebagai organisme tunggal terbesar di dunia. Pada kenyataannya, ia terbentuk dari berjuta organisme kecil, dikenal dengan sebutan polip koral (coral polyp). KPB dipilih sebagai sebagai salah satu Situs Warisan Dunia UNESCO pada tahun 1981.
Kekayaan biodiversitasnya, perairannya yang hangat dan jernih, serta keterjangkauannya dari fasilitas terapung yang disebut live aboards, membuat karang ini menjadi tujuan pariwisata yang sangat populer, terutama bagi para penyelam scuba. Banyak kota di sepanjang pesisir pantai Queensland yang menawarkan wisata laut ke karang ini setiap harinya. Beberapa pulau kontinental juga telah berubah fungsi menjadi resor.
3. Mount Everest
Mount Everest adalah gunung tertinggi di dunia (jika diukur dari paras laut). Rabung puncaknya menandakan perbatasan antara Nepal dan Tibet puncaknya berada di Tibet. Gunung ini mempunyai ketinggian sekitar 8.850 m. Gunung ini mendapatkan nama bahasa Inggrisnya dari nama Sir George Everest. Nama ini diberikan oleh Sir Andrew Waugh, surveyor-general India berkebangsaan Inggris, penerus Everest. Puncak Everest merupakan salah satu dari Tujuh Puncak Utama di dunia.
4. Air Terjun Victoria
Air terjun Victoria merupakan salah satu air terjun paling spektakuler di dunia. Air terjun ini terletak di Sungai Zambezi, yang pada saat ini membentuk perbatasan antara Zambia dan Zimbabwe. Air terjun ini memiliki lebar kira-kira 1 mil (1,6 km), dengan ketinggian 128m (420 kaki).
David Livingstone, penjelajah Skotlandia, mengunjungi danau ini pada 1855 dan menamakannya atas nama Ratu Victoria, sedangkan nama lokalnya adalah Mosi-oa-Tunya, “asap menggelegar.” Air terjun ini merupakan bagian dari dua taman nasional, Mosi-oa-Tunya National Park di Zambia dan Victoria Falls National Park di Zimbabwe, dan juga Situs Warisan Dunia UNESCO. Air terjun ini merupakan obyek wisata utama di Afrika Selatan.
5. Northern Lights
Salah satu keajaiban dunia adalah Northern Lights atau dikenal juga dengan istilah Aurora Borealis. Kejaiban cahaya warna-warni ini terbentuk akibat interaksi lapangan magnetik di Bumi dengan partikel matahari.
Volkano ParicutÃn, adalah sebuah gunung berapi yang terdapat di negara bagian Michoacan, Meksiko. Sebelum tahun 1943 gunung berapi ini tidak ada, namun tiba-tiba terdapat aktivitas vulkanik yang mengakibatkan orang-orang di sekitar sana mengungsi, gunung muda itu terus bertambah tinggi, dalam sehari menjadi 50 meter dan saat ini aktivitasnya bisa dikatakan berhenti, dan ketinggian gunung mencapai 336 meter.
7. Pelabuhan Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro (bermakna “Sungai Januari” dalam bahasa Portugis) adalah ibu kota Negara Bagian Rio de Janeiro di Brasil bagian tenggara.Kota ini mempunyai luas sebesar 1.256 kmÂ² dan penduduk sekitar 6.150.000 juta jiwa (2004).Sekitar 10 juta orang tinggal di wilayah metropolitan Rio de Janeiro Raya, yang saat ini merupakan kota terbesar keempat di dunia.
Letak pelabuhan Rio De Janeiro sangat unik yaitu tepat berada di ujung muara sungai antara pertemuan laut dan sungai, selain kota pelabuhan kota tersebut juga mempunyai letak dan pemandangan geografis yang sangat indah, Brazil ditemukan dan dijajah oleh portugis pada tahun 1565 sehingga budaya , bahasa, kebiasaan, juga makanan mengacu kepada negara portugal yaitu karena adanya ikatan bathin antara dua negara tersebut.